Design and implementation of mixing chambers to improve thermal decomposition of urea for NOX abatement

J.-G. Lee, Y.-D. Kim, and W.-S. Kim
Environmental Engineering Science, 29, no. 10, 979-986, (2012)

Design and implementation of mixing chambers to improve thermal decomposition of urea for NOX abatement

Keywords

Ammonia, Mixing chamber,  Thermal decomposition,  Ureawater solution

Abstract

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been reported as the most promising technique for adherence to NOX emissions regulations. In the urea-SCR process, NH3 is generated by urea thermal decomposition and hydrolysis and is then used as a reductant of NOX in the SCR catalyst. Therefore, improving the NOX conversion efficiency of urea-SCR requires enhancement of thermal decomposition upstream of the SCR catalyst. In the present work, two types of mixing chambers were designed and fabricated to improve urea thermal decomposition, and experiments with and without a mixing chamber were carried out to analyze thermal-decomposition characteristics of urea in the exhaust pipe with respect to inlet velocity (4–12 m/s) and temperature (350°C–500°C). Urea thermal decomposition is greatly enhanced at higher gas temperatures. At an inlet velocity of 6 m/s in the A-type mixing chamber, NH3 concentrations generated along the exhaust pipe were about 171% and 157% greater than those without the mixing chamber for inlet temperatures of 400°C and 500°C, respectively. In the case of the B-type mixing chamber, NH3 concentrations generated at inlet temperatures of 400°C and 500°C were about 147% and 179% greater than those without the mixing chamber, respectively. Note that the implementation of mixing chambers significantly enhanced conversion of urea to NH3 because it increased the residence time of urea in the exhaust pipe and improved mixing between urea and exhaust gas.

Code

DOI: 10.1089/ees.2011.0414

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