E.I. Prest, F. Hammes, S. Kötzsch, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, J.S. Vrouwenvelder
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, Vol. 16, Issue 5, (2016)
A systematic approach is presented for the assessment of (i) bacterial growth-controlling factors in drinking water and of (ii) the impact of distribution conditions on the extent of bacterial growth in full-scale distribution systems. The approach combines (i) quantification of changes in autochthonous bacterial cell concentrations in full-scale distribution systems with (ii) laboratory-scale batch bacterial growth-potential tests of drinking water samples under defined conditions. The growth-potential tests were done by direct-incubation of water samples, without modification of the original bacterial flora, and with flow cytometric quantification of bacterial growth. This method was shown to be reproducible (ca. 4% relative standard deviation) and sensitive (detection of bacterial growth down to 5 µg L−1 of added assimilable organic carbon). The principle of step-wise assessment of bacterial growth-controlling factors was demonstrated on bottled water, shown to be primarily carbon limited at 133 (±18) × 103 cells mL−1 and secondarily limited by inorganic nutrients at 5,500 (±1,700) × 103 cells mL−1. Analysis of the effluent of a Dutch full-scale drinking water treatment plant showed (1) bacterial growth inhibition as a result of end-point chlorination, (2) organic carbon limitation at 192 (±72) × 103 cells mL−1 and inorganic nutrient limitation at 375 (±31) × 103 cells mL−1. Significantly lower net bacterial growth was measured in the corresponding full-scale system (176 (±25) × 103 cells mL−1) than in the laboratory scale growth potential test of the same water (294 (±35) × 103 cells mL−1), highlighting the influence of distribution on bacterial growth. The systematic approach described herein provides quantitative information on the effect of drinking water properties and distribution system conditions on biological stability, which can assist water utilities in decision making on treatment or distribution system improvements to better control bacterial growth during water distribution.