M. Burhan, M.W. Shahzad, K.C. Ng
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, (2018)
Based upon the adsorbate–adsorbent interactions due to pore size distribution and surface heterogeneity, as characterized by the adsorption isotherms, the adsorption phenomenon has many industrial and environmental applications. These adsorption isotherms are very important to define the information related to the equilibrium uptake of adsorbate–adsorbent pair. Due to the presence of different energy distribution of adsorption sites, pore size distribution, surface area availability and surface heterogeneity, of each of the adsorbent–adsorbate pair, these isotherms are categorized into six types by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and so far, in the literature, there is no generalized adsorption isotherm model available that can define and predict the behavior of all adsorption isotherm types. In this study, a universal adsorption isotherm model is developed based upon the energy distribution function of the available adsorption sites and the pore size. The proposed model is able to define all adsorption isotherm characteristics, irrespective of their multi- or monolayer formations and micro- or meso-pore distribution.