M. Burhan, M.W. Shahzad, K.C. Ng
The Energy Mix for Sustaining Our Future, pp. 93-102, (2019)
Solar energy being intermittent in nature can provide a sustainable, steady, and high-density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in the current photovoltaic market trend with 99% con- ventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive widespread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low-cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation-related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in the tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV. As concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system can operate at 1000 concentration ratio, therefore, such high concentration ratio requires heat dissipation from the cell area to maintain optimum temperature. With such heat recovery, the hybrid CPVT system has shown solar energy conversion efficiency of 71%.